SAN FRANCISCO – In a year when populist voters reshaped power and politics across Europe and the United States, the world’s wealthiest people are ending 2016 with US$237bil more than they had at the start.
Triggered by disappointing economic data from China at the beginning, the UK’s vote to leave the European Union in the middle and the election of billionaire Donald Trump at the end, the biggest fortunes on the planet whipsawed through US$4.8 trillion of daily net worth gains and losses during the year, rising 5.7% to US$4.4 trillion by the close of trading Dec 27, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index.
“In general, clients rode through the volatility,” said Simon Smiles, chief investment officer for ultra-high-net-worth clients at UBS Wealth Management. “2016 ended up being a spectacular year for risk assets. Pretty remarkable given the start of the year.”
The gains were led by Warren Buffett, who added US$11.8bil during the year as his investment firm Berkshire Hathaway Inc saw its airline and banking holdings soar after Trump’s surprise victory on Nov 8. Buffett, who’s pledged to give away most of his fortune to charity, donated Berkshire Hathaway stock valued at US$2.6bil in July.
China boost: Arnault, owner of LVMH group, is the sole non-American representative among the five best performers, adding US7.1bil to take his fortune to US38.9bil on improving China market. – EPA
The US investor reclaimed his spot as the world’s second-richest person two days after Trump’s victory ignited a year-end rally that pushed Buffett’s wealth up 19% for the year to US$74.1bil.
“2016’s been event-driven with global news driving prices rather than fundamentals,” said Michael Cole, president of Ascent Private Capital Management, which has about US$10bil of assets under administration. “The belief that Trump is going to come in and deregulate big parts of the economy is driving the markets right now.”
The individual gains for the year were dominated by Americans, who had four of the five biggest increases on the index, including Microsoft Corp co-founder Bill Gates, the world’s richest person with US$91.5bil, and oilman Harold Hamm.
The country’s richest were largely opposed to a Trump presidency during the election, including Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban, who told the media in May that stocks could fall as much as 20% if Trump were to win the election.
US billionaires – including Buffett – favoured Trump’s rival Hillary Clinton. Still, they profited from his victory when they added US$77bil to their fortunes in the post-election rally fueled by expectations that regulations would ease and American industry would benefit.
The New York real estate mogul is building a cabinet heavy on wealth and corporate connections, and light on government experience, a mix that hedge fund billionaire Ray Dalio said last week would unleash the “animal spirits” of capitalism and drive markets even higher. Dalio is the world’s 63rd-richest person with US$14.1bil.
Investors and executives welcomed Trump’s picks, including billionaire Wilbur Ross to lead the Department of Commerce and former Goldman Sachs Group Inc executive Steven Mnuchin as his Treasury secretary, who have a combined net worth of at least US$5.6bil, according to the index.
“You know, I was not opposing Trump as much as most people,” Saudi Arabian billionaire Mohamed Issa Al Jaber said in a Dec 11 interview. “He’s capable and – as a businessman – he’s shrewd about the bottom line. The people he’s surrounding himself with have baggage but they’re also successful and shrewd.”
France’s Bernard Arnault was the sole non-American representative among the five best performers, adding US$7.1bil to take his fortune to US$38.9bil. His LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE said the Chinese luxury-goods market is improving.
Gates remained the world’s richest person throughout the year. Amancio Ortega, Europe’s richest person and founder of the Zara clothing chain, was in second place on the index for most of the year until he ceded it to Buffett in November. Ortega, who dropped US$1.7bil in 2016, is the world’s third-richest person with US$71.2bil.
Wildcatter Hamm’s fortune was propelled by a strengthening oil price and expectations a Trump administration would slash fossil-fuel regulations. Hamm added US$8.4bil to more than double his fortune to US$15.3bil. He led the 49 energy, metals and mining billionaires, who were the best-performing category on the ranking, adding US$80bil and reversing the US$32bil fall they had in 2015.
Billionaire brothers Charles and David Koch each dropped US$2bil after Koch Industries reported on its website that annual revenue is estimated to be “as high as US$100bil,” compared with the estimate of “as much as US$115bil” that the conglomerate published on the site previously. Company spokesman Rob Carlton stated in a Nov 17 e-mail that Koch revenue fluctuates with the price of commodities.
Technology fortunes were the second-best performing on the ranking, with 55 billionaires adding US$50bil to their fortunes over the year, despite worries that a Trump presidency might introduce policies that could hurt their companies.
“I think we’ll have to see what the policies of the administration are,” Google co-founder Sergey Brin told the media gathered on the red carpet of the annual Breakthrough Prize gala in Silicon Valley in December. “I certainly hope they will be pro-science, pro-technology and all the things this world has really benefited from.”
Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos, who doubled his fortune to US$60bil in 2015, led gains among technology executives again this year, rising US$7.5bil in 2016 on robust sales growth at the online retailer. He was followed by Facebook Inc co-founder Mark Zuckerberg, who added US$5.4bil.
Some of the industry’s biggest relative gains went to the founders of the world’s leading startups, such as Uber Technologies Inc’s Travis Kalanick and Snap Inc’s Evan Spiegel. The so-called “unicorn” billionaires, which include Spotify Inc co-founder Martin Lorentzon, who was identified as a billionaire for the first time in 2016, secured a series of mammoth funding rounds while moving closer to testing their fortunes on the public markets.
Other billionaires uncovered by the Bloomberg index in 2016 included the father and son behind Jose Cuervo tequila, New York real estate developer Axel Stawski and Kosovo construction tycoon Behgjet Pacolli.
The index also unveiled 11 surviving family members of reclusive Thai entrepreneur Chaleo Yoovidhya, the inventor of Red Bull, whose heirs share a combined US$22bil net worth, the world’s largest energy-drink fortune. Three billionaires emerged in Argentina, including the country’s first technology billionaire Marcos Galperin, as markets rose on enthusiasm for president Mauricio Macri’s finance-friendly economic policies.
Most fortunes outside of the United States didn’t get the same boost from Trump’s victory, and were hurt by fluctuating commodities prices and the rise of the dollar, the currency used for the Bloomberg ranking. Nine of the 10 biggest decliners in 2016 were from outside the United States, led by China’s second-richest person, Wang Jianlin, who lost US$5.8bil. Wang ended the year as the world’s 21st-richest person with US$30.6bil.
Nigeria’s Aliko Dangote, the richest person in Africa, lost US$4.9bil or one-third of his wealth as the combined effect of falling oil prices and the June devaluation of the naira pushed him to No. 112 with US$10.4bil. Dangote was the world’s 46th-richest person in June.
Saudi Arabia’s Prince Alwaleed Talal Al Saud fell US$4.9bil, a 20% drop. Alwaleed said in November that all of his stakes in public companies including Citigroup Inc are potentially for sale, reversing a long-standing policy that some of his most prized shareholdings were “forever.”
Wealth creation in China turned negative for the first time since the inception of the Bloomberg index five years ago, with the country’s richest losing US$11bil in 2016 amid a slump in the Shanghai Shenzhen CSI 300 index and a 7% decline for the yuan against the dollar.
Alibaba Group Holding Ltd founder Jack Ma closed the year with US$33.3bil, adding US$3.6bil in 2016. He dropped in and out of his place as Asia’s richest person for the first four months of the year before claiming it for good in May after Alibaba’s finance affiliate, which is laying the groundwork for an initial public offering expected as soon as next year, completed a record US$4.5bil equity fundraising round.
Asia richest: Ma closed the year with US33.3bil, adding US3.6bil in 2016. He dropped in and out of his place as Asia’s richest person for the first four months of the year before claiming it for good in May. – Reuters
China has 31 billionaires on the index with US$262bil, trailing the United States which has 179 billionaires who control US$1.9 trillion, and Germany, whose 39 individuals have US$281bil. Russian billionaires also began to put the negative effects of US and European sanctions behind them, reversing the combined US$63bil declines for 2014 and 2015 and adding US$49bil in 2016.
Wealth managers for the world’s richest are girding themselves for similarly frenetic start to 2017 as the seismic changes voters demanded this year start to take shape.”Expect the unexpected,” said Sabine Kaiser, founder of SKadvisory, which advises family offices on venture capital and private equity. “I don’t think family offices are overly concerned or getting too nervous but after Brexit and Trump they’ve resigned themselves to market volatility.”